Sunday, September 20, 2020

Fw: Ref.: (LML) 1.25 billion US dollars raised rapidly; interest rate tied to key indicators

 


Leprosy Mailing List – September 20,  2020

 

Ref.:  (LML) 1.25 billion US dollars raised rapidly; interest rate tied to key indicators

 

From:  Joel Almeida, London and Mumbai

 

 

Dear Pieter and colleagues,

 

Novartis has raised over 1.25 billion USD within a short time of placing a bond. This is a promise to pay creditors a specified rate of interest (in addition to repaying the capital in due course). Interestingly, the interest rate is tied to the performance of Novartis in improving access to effective interventions against diseases including HD (leprosy).

 

https://esgtoday.com/novartis-launches-healthcare-industrys-first-sustainability-linked-bond-offering/?utm_source=rss&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=novartis-launches-healthcare-industrys-first-sustainability-linked-bond-offering 

 

This is a first in the health sector. It means that Novartis is betting on performing well in terms of widening access to effective interventions for people even in low-income countries. Else Novartis will pay a higher rate of interest on the bond. The money raised can be used to further Novartis' general money-generating goals, and it can do so more effectively if Novartis performs well on widening access to effective interventions.

 

The significance of this pioneering bond is that large businesses can tie their financial performance to the achievement of social goals. 

 

As a part of the small WHO HQ team in the 1990s that brainstormed the transformation of financing for TB control (with some success), I can say that this bond is transformational because it opens the door to governments and others issuing bonds of their own. Governments raise money through taxation, but also through bonds. If governments tied the interest rate on bonds to the government's measurable performance on social goals, then life steadily could improve for the most vulnerable people. 

 

It becomes more important than usual now to fine-tune performance indicators and to measure outcomes reliably. There is a greater incentive to spread interventions, and it is important to ensure that no harmful interventions are spread while vigorously promoting what demonstrably works.

 

Joel Almeida

LML - S Deepak, B Naafs, S Noto and P Schreuder

LML blog link: http://leprosymailinglist.blogspot.it/

Contact: Dr Pieter Schreuder << editorlml@gmail.com

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Wednesday, September 16, 2020

Fw: Ref.: (LML) The neglected multitude of previously treated patients


 

Leprosy Mailing List – September 16 ,  2020

 

Ref.:  (LML) The neglected multitude of previously treated patients

 

From:  Joel Almeida, London and Mumbai

 

 

 

Dear Pieter and colleagues,

 

The WER (Weekly Epidemiological Record) provides useful clues to what is happening, even though the precision and reliability of reports might be no better than it ought to be. I believe we are at a special point in the millennia-long history of the endemic. We now have enough understanding to match the spectacular past achievement of 20%/year decline in newly detected MB patients, leading rapidly to near-zero transmission. By contrast, even Norway showed no more than 10%/year decline. We know how to do better. The short communication below shows why. 

 

There is no merit in doing the wrong things, even if they temporarily become fashionable. Science works best in an atmosphere of open discussion (like LML). We are waging a war on a tiny but highly damaging enemy, the bacillus. And we are doing this in order to transform human lives for the better. The whole world deserves an opportunity to do what really works, each individual contributing their special talents. In this age of video and easy translation, we can even reach out to hear the voices and experiences of people affected by HD who are otherwise poorly connected. They could help open our eyes to what is really happening.

 

Joel Almeida

 

 
- - - - - - - - - -

 

 

The neglected multitude of previously treated patients

 

In 2019, according to the WHO Weekly Epidemiological Record (WER), 3893 HD (leprosy) cases across the globe were reported as relapses after completion of MDT (multi-drug therapy), and 15 517 patients had restarted treatment for HD. 202,185 newly detected HD patients (all types) were reported. About 10% of HD patients tested yielded drug-resistant bacilli.

 

The trend in the number of newly detected MB (multibacillary) HD patients is probably the most reliable number for tracking the endemic. That is because MB HD rarely self-heals, and sooner or later these patients come to the attention of health services. MB HD cannot easily be swept under the carpet. Therefore, the number of newly detected MB patients/year is less susceptible to artefacts than are many other measures.

 

In India, following intensified case-finding with examination of contacts, plus a greater financial incentive to report non-G2D patients than G2D patients, newly reported MB HD patients declined at only 1% per year between 2015 and 2020 (based on WER data). These numbers suggest that claims about the rapid decline of HD in India (and elsewhere) might be somewhat out of touch with reality.

 

 

 

Figure 1. MB patients newly reported worldwide, by year of reporting until 2019 (see attached file). Stagnation over time, or possibly a slight increase, is apparent.

 

 

What does all this mean epidemiologically?

 

The number of previously treated persons with newly recognised bacillary multiplication was equivalent to about one-tenth of the number of newly detected HD patients of all types. And about one-sixth of the likely number of newly detected MB HD patients. 

 

How long does it take to discern new bacillary multiplication in previously treated HD patients? Over 6 years in research projects with careful follow-up of subjects (2,3,4). Under typical conditions of health care in endemic areas, with absence of skin smear facilities, probably more than 6 years and nearer 10 years or more. 

 

Further, MB HD and LLp (polar lepromatous) HD are significantly over-represented among those newly showing bacillary multiplication. LLp HD patients, in particular, uniquely have the genomes (5,6,7,8) that permit astronomical numbers of viable bacilli to be harboured and shed in high concentration. (9) *

 

Prevalence = Incidence rate x duration

 

Putting all that together, the hidden prevalence of previously treated patients with bacillary multiplication (and potential excretion) equals or exceeds the number of newly detected MB HD patients (by as much as nearly two-fold).

 

In short, the endemic is probably being maintained in recent decades by the neglected multitude of previously treated MB HD patients. Especially neglected LLp HD patients, many of whom are struggling with serious physical and other disabilities in addition to extreme poverty. (10)

 

There is considerable room for improvement in our epidemiological understanding and public health interventions, as well as in our respect for the human rights of the neglected. 

 

As Article 25 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights states:

"(1) Everyone has the right to a standard of living adequate for the health and well-being of himself and of his family, including food, clothing, housing and medical care and necessary social services, and the right to security in the event of unemployment, sickness, disability, widowhood, old age or other lack of livelihood in circumstances beyond his control."

 

Article 25 has particular force in HD, because improved medical (and other) care for the neglected multitude promises to improve life not only for them, but also for the entire population of HD endemic areas. 

 

Continued anti-microbial neglect and other neglect of previously treated LLp HD patients is likely to be the single biggest obstacle to ending the transmission of HD, apart from being gratuitously cruel to those persons. If we seek first the improved anti-microbial protection (and comprehensive care) of the neglected multitude, all other things will be added unto us. This includes a likely end to transmission, as demonstrated in provinces where prolonged anti-microbial protection was ensured. That was followed by a rapid decline in newly detected MB HD patients/year, (11,12) even sustained until near-zero transmission. (13)

 

The voices of neglected previously treated HD patients might well help open our eyes, ears and minds to what is actually happening at the front-lines. We are a community of integrity, compassion and science. Therefore, we remain open to clues and keep making the improvements necessary. By respecting Article 25 of Universal Declaration of Human Rights, above all in the case of previously treated LLp HD patients, we too can end the transmission of HD.

 

Joel Almeida

 

 

* No other environmental sources of bacilli, apart from infected armadillos, can rival the spectacularly high concentration of astronomical numbers (hundreds of millions or billions) of viable bacilli as found in the nasal excretions of untreated persons with LLp HD. If it were possible for bacilli to not just survive in soil, amoebae, sphagnum moss etc., but actively to multiply prolifically, then we could cultivate the bacilli simply by growing them in such samples. No soil or amoebae or moss etc. have yet been discovered to permit prolific cultivation of the bacilli. Untreated LLp patients and infected armadillos so far remain the only known sources of such astronomical numbers of highly concentrated viable bacilli. This brings zero transmission within reach, especially in continents without armadillos.

 

 

Summary in translation

 

पहले से इलाज किए गए एमबी एचडी (कुष्ठ) के मरीज उपेक्षित हैं। यह फिर से संक्रमण की अनुमति देता है, खासकर एलएलपी एचडी वाले लोगों में। इस तरह एचडी का संचरण जारी रहता है। लंबे समय तक एंटी-माइक्रोबियल संरक्षण, स्वास्थ्य देखभाल बढ़ाई, और बेहतर सामाजिक-आर्थिक देखभाल, पहले से इलाज किए गए एलएलपी एचडी रोगियों के लिए एचडी के प्रसार को समाप्त कर सकता है। इस तरह की सुरक्षा मानव अधिकारों की सार्वभौमिक घोषणा के अनुच्छेद 25.1 का भी सम्मान करेगी।

 

Pacientes MB HD (hanseníase) tratados anteriormente são negligenciados. Isso permite a reinfecção, especialmente entre aqueles com HD Virchowian. É assim que a transmissão de HD continua. A proteção antimicrobiana prolongada, cuidados de saúde aprimorados e o cuidado socioeconômico aprimorado para pacientes em HD Virchowian tratados anteriormente podem acabar com a disseminação da HD. Tal proteção também respeitaria o Artigo 25.1 da Declaração Universal dos Direitos Humanos.

 

Pasien MB HD (kusta) yang sebelumnya dirawat saat ini diabaikan. Hal ini memungkinkan terjadinya infeksi ulang, terutama di antara mereka dengan LL HD polar. Begitulah transmisi HD berlanjut. Perlindungan anti-mikroba yang berkepanjangan, peningkatan perawatan kesehatan, dan perawatan sosial ekonomi yang lebih baik, untuk pasien HD LL kutub yang dirawat sebelumnya dapat menghentikan penyebaran HD. Perlindungan tersebut juga akan menghormati Pasal 25.1 dari Deklarasi Universal Hak Asasi Manusia.

 

Les patients atteints de MB HD (lèpre) précédemment traités sont actuellement négligés. Cela permet la réinfection, en particulier chez ceux avec LL HD polaire. C'est ainsi que se poursuit la transmission HD. Une protection antimicrobienne prolongée, amélioration des soins de santé et de meilleurs soins socio-économiques pour les patients HD LL polaires préalablement traités peuvent arrêter la propagation de la HD. Une telle protection respectera également l'article 25.1 de la Déclaration universelle des droits de l'homme.

 

Los pacientes con MB HD (lepra) tratados anteriormente están siendo desatendidos actualmente. Esto permite la reinfección, particularmente entre aquellos con HD LL polar. Así es como continúa la transmisión HD. La protección antimicrobiana prolongada, mejor cuidado de la salud, y la atención socioeconómica mejorada para los pacientes con HD polar LL tratados previamente pueden detener la propagación de la HD. Dicha protección también respetará el artículo 25.1 de la Declaración Universal de Derechos Humanos.

 

以前に治療されたMB HD(ハンセン病)患者は無視されます。これにより、特にLLp HD患者の再感染が可能になります。これがHD伝送が続く方法です。以前に治療されたLLp HD患者の長期的な抗菌保護、改善されたヘルスケア、および改善された社会経済的ケアは、世界からの感染を取り除くことができます(アルマジロのある大陸を除く)。そのような保護はまた、世界人権宣言の第25.1条を尊重します。

 

 

 

References

 

1 WHO. WER No 36, 2020, 95, 417–440

2. Penna GO, Bu¨hrer-Se´kula S, Kerr LRS,  et al. Uniform multidrug therapy for leprosy patients in Brazil (U-MDT/CT-BR): Results of an open label, randomized and controlled clinical trial,among multibacillary patients. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017; 11(7): e0005725. 

3. Butlin CR, Aung KJM, Withington S et al. Levels of disability and relapse in Bangladeshi MB leprosy cases, 10 years after treatment with 6m MB-MDT. Lepr Rev (2019) 90, 388–398.

4. Balagon MF, Cellona RV, dela Cruz E et al. Long-Term Relapse Risk of Multibacillary Leprosy after Completion of 2 Years of Multiple Drug Therapy (WHO-MDT) in Cebu, Philippines. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 2009; 81, 5: 895-9.

5. Gaschignard J, Grant AV, Thuc NV, Orlova M, Cobat A, Huong NT, et al. (2016) Pauci- and Multibacillary Leprosy: Two Distinct, Genetically Neglected Diseases. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 10(5): e0004345. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0004345

6. Chakravarrti MR, Vogel F. A twin study on leprosy Georg Thieme Publishers, Stuttgart, Germany; 1973.

7. Cambri G, Mira MT. Genetic Susceptibility to Leprosy—From Classic Immune-Related Candidate Genes to Hypothesis-Free, Whole Genome Approaches. Front. Immunol., 20 July 2018 | https://doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2018.01674

8. Sartori PVU, Penna GO, Bührer-Sékula S et al. Human Genetic Susceptibility of Leprosy Recurrence. Scientific Reports (2020) volume 10, Article number: 1284

9. Davey TF, Rees RJ. The nasal dicharge in leprosy: clinical and bacteriological aspects. Lepr Rev. 1974 Jun;45(2):121-34.

10. Rao PS, Mozhi NM, Thomas MV. Leprosy affected beggars as a hidden source for transmission of leprosy. Indian J Med Res. 2000 Aug;112:52-5.  

11. Li HY, Weng XM, Li T et al. Long-Term Effect of Leprosy Control in Two Prefectures of China, 1955-1993. Int J Lepr Other Mycobact Dis. 1995 Jun;63(2):213-221. reviewed & analysed further in: 11 a. Almeida J. What really happened in Shandong? LML 16 Nov 2019
12.  Tonglet R, Pattyn SR, Nsansi BN et al. The reduction of the leprosy endemicity in northeastern Zaire 1975/1989 J.Eur J Epidemiol. 1990 Dec;6(4):404-6 reviewed in: 12a. Almeida J. Reducing transmission in poor hyperendemic areas - evidence from Uele (DRC). LML 29 Nov 2019

13. Shumin Chen, Yunchun Zheng, Min Zheng, Demin Wang. Rapid survey on case detection of leprosy in a low endemic situation, Zhucheng County, Shandong Province, The People's Republic of China. Lepr Rev (2007) 78, 65–69.

LML - S Deepak, B Naafs, S Noto and P Schreuder

LML blog link: http://leprosymailinglist.blogspot.it/

Contact: Dr Pieter Schreuder << editorlml@gmail.com

 

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Monday, September 14, 2020

Fw: Ref.: (LML) Information about the distribution of Hansen’s disease treatment in Brazil - Nota de Esclarecimento sobre o desabastecimento de PQT no Brasil

 

 


Leprosy Mailing List – September 14,  2020

 

Ref.:  (LML) Information about the distribution of Hansen's disease treatment in Brazil - Nota de Esclarecimento sobre o desabastecimento de PQT no Brasil

 

From:  Carmelita Ribeiro, Brasília, Brazil

 

Note editor:

We received the above mentioned information (in English, attached file)) from the Department of Diseases of Chronic Condition and Sexually Transmitted Infections, Secretariat for Health Surveillance, Ministry of Health, Brazil as a reaction to the LML publication 'Lack of MDT in Brazil' from Claudio Salgado of the Brazilian Society of Hansen's Disease (SBH), August 18, 2020.

 

Prezado Dr Pieter,

 

Sou Carmelita Ribeiro (Carmel), na época que trabalhamos juntos em projetos da NLR, estava no Programa Estadual de Hanseníase em Rondônia.

 

Estou no Programa Nacional, no Ministério da Saúde, desde janeiro 2017, enfrentando os desafios de coordenar o programa do meu país.

 

A SBH, por meio do presidente Cláudio Salgado, publicou no Leprosy Mailing List carta sobre o desabastecimento da PQT no Brasil.

 

Em resposta a carta da SBH, enviei uma Nota de Esclarecimento. 

 

Gostaria de saber se o senhor recebeu. Se sim, é possível publicar no canal Leprosy Mailing List?

 

Agradeço sua atenção.

 

Carmelita

LML - S Deepak, B Naafs, S Noto and P Schreuder

LML blog link: http://leprosymailinglist.blogspot.it/

Contact: Dr Pieter Schreuder << editorlml@gmail.com

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Sunday, September 13, 2020

Fw: (LML) Lepromatous leprosy needs longer treatment regimens

 


Leprosy Mailing List – September 13,  2020

 

Ref.:  (LML) Lepromatous leprosy needs longer treatment regimens

 

From:  Ben Naafs, Munnekeburen, the Netherlands

 

Dear Pieter

 

As usual the contribution of Joël Almeida is worthwhile reading and well documented (LML, August 28, 2020). He also makes that you want to respond. Since no one does I may go through his contribution with my own bias. I hope others respond too.

 

I agree with Joël that recurrences, relapses or reinfections of lepromatous disease are a major problem in leprosy control. Nearly all high bacteriological index (BI)positive patients have persisters. After developing the disease again, they contribute again to the infective pool. A shame is that with the present WHO-advised regimen(s), non-detected recurrences will most likely occur. One more shame is that the Ridley and Jopling classification (or any scientific classification) and the slit-skin smear examination are not implemented. Without these tools high bacterial load forms of leprosy, i.e. borderline lepromatous (BL), lepromatous (LL) and its variants: subpolar (LLs), polar (LLp ) and histoid leprosy, are more difficult to identify.

 

A relapsed LL patient has less symptoms because her/his adaptive immune system has collapsed. May be with exception of most of the LLp patients who have no adaptive immunity to M. leprae antigens at all. Their innate immunity and other mechanisms are responsible for the symptoms together with the load of bacteria, but even more difficult to detect clinically.

 

Joël proposes longer treatment regimens for lepromatous disease, I fully agree with him. The result will be less deformities. But I am not so sure whether this will also lead to less cases in the community if there are other than human sources as well. I think he should also consider the possible survival of M. leprae in the environment and in other hosts than the human being. These hosts (animals) will contribute to the infective pool too. It is important to notice/understand whether and how the environment may contribute to survival of the bacillus.

 

Relapses have a role in maintaining infection in developed cities and towns, where M. leprae cannot survive in the environment due to the dry cement and wooden floors without cracks, not so much in shanty towns and rural areas where M. leprae can survive for some time in the environment. It may well be that in China and Congo in the area's he mentioned no other host than the human is available, and the surrounding areas are not allowing survival of the bacillus. The surrounding is hot and dry or cold and not moist, with houses without mud floors (because there bacilli can survive).

 

Shandong is characterized by a continental climate with cold winters and hot, dry summers. An area where M. leprae is not likely to survive in the environment. The area around Wamba (Uele) DR Congo consists of a rainforest-derived mosaic of dry, swamp, and secondary forest, with cultivated fields. I would think M. leprae could survive here. For some time. May be I am wrong. So, my argument against his arguments may fit for Shandung but not for Uele.

I am glad he acknowledged the genomes in a LLp patient that make survival of M. leprae possible, but I think that all lepromatous patients have these genes, necessary for M.leprae to survive. If their adaptive immune system is still on the alert (in borderline patients), this may lead to early symptoms and the downgrading borderline leprosy can be diagnosed early. In LLp there is no downgrading and there are hardly any symptoms. Thus, the argument of Joël to treat longer is even stronger.

In Borderline lepromatous patients the immune system to M. Leprae antigens slowly collapses during the downgrading. After a relapse the detection of the increase in bacilli takes a long time and the symptoms are not to severe so that the patient seeks no help. It is difficult to diagnose these patients early, biopsy and smears are often not enough.

In Zimbabwe in the mid 1980th we used the PGL-1 titre and diagnosed by an increase in serology some patients before other methods diagnosed the relapse. The same we have done in the Netherlands and diagnosed some relapses more or less early. We followed patients as long as they wanted. But we used only 2 years treatment. In the Netherlands exogenous infection does not occur.

When good serological (PGL-1,Lid1 or another antigen) and PCR follow-up is not possible, I fully agree with Joël treat to smear negativity or lifelong.

 

Ben

LML - S Deepak, B Naafs, S Noto and P Schreuder

LML blog link: http://leprosymailinglist.blogspot.it/

Contact: Dr Pieter Schreuder << editorlml@gmail.com

 

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Friday, September 11, 2020

Fw: Ref.: (LML) Stigma of seeking or accepting alms

Leprosy Mailing List – August 11,  2020

 

Ref.:  (LML) Stigma of seeking or accepting alms

 

From:  Joel Almeida, London and Mumbai

 

 

Dear Pieter and colleagues,

 

In Japan, in April 2020, Prime Minister Shinzo Abe unveiled a package of stimulus measures worth at least $1 trillion (one thousand billions US dollars equivalent) to protect jobs, bolster the medical sector and ease the pain for working families. What did this mean for individuals in Japan? A cash payment of 100,000 yen to every resident. More handouts followed.

 

In the UK, the government announced measures to stimulate the economy. This included payment of 50% of the cost of a meal at any participating restaurant, up to a reasonably generous limit per visit per individual. This allowed several non-starving people to enjoy the choicest foods by the greatest chefs at heavily discounted out-of-pocket payments.

 

In the COVID era, accepting alms seems to have become acceptable, and even fashionable. There is apparently no stigma attached to it any more. That is because, perhaps for the first time in history, the affluent have paid out hard cash on the basis that it is better to have paying customers than to have starving poor people. Or even, better to have high-spending customers instead of slightly less well-heeled citizens. 

 

The stigma to accepting alms seems to depend on the wealth of the recipient. If the recipient is affluent, or in an affluent country, it seems stigma-free to accept alms. People have been paid to stay at home and away from workplaces, in the hope that this would slow the spread of the virus.

 

Persons disfigured by HD, sometimes with absent hands or feet, are less fortunate. If someone paid them to stay put, they could escape starvation without having to go to the streets to beg. We know that at least some of such individuals have been left to die of starvation during the COVID-related lockdowns. It would be good to attach less stigma to alms-taking, now that COVID has made alms-taking acceptable and almost fashionable for the affluent.

 

We can be grateful to Prime Ministers and Presidents of affluent countries for educating the world on the true significance of alms. Reducing the stigma of alms-taking among persons disfigured by HD would seem humane. It would be humane too for them to receive the medical care they deserve even if they have previously been treated. Just as affluent economies effectively hurt themselves if they refuse to take care of the poorer people, so the cause of HD control is destroyed if we continue to neglect previously treated persons disfigured by HD. They have a disproportionate representation of persons with LLp HD, which tends to recur repeatedly if neglected.

 

Interestingly, if we seek first the care of persons disfigured by HD, and persons with LLp HD, all the other things will be added. Including an end to transmission of HD.

 

Of course we would like the world to have zero poverty and for every individual to be in prestigious employment. But we could make a start with zero poverty by ensuring that not a single further previously treated person afflicted by HD is allowed to die of starvation, or to suffer lack of competent medical care. Once we have remedied extreme poverty and lack of competent medical care among previously treated persons afflicted by HD, people might pay greater attention to our exhortations to end all world poverty. And we will have matched past successes in ending transmission of HD.

 

I wish everyone a good stimulus package, and I am sure that we will rise to the challenges and opportunities of these unusual times. At our best, we have a strong conscience.

 

Joel Almeida

LML - S Deepak, B Naafs, S Noto and P Schreuder

LML blog link: http://leprosymailinglist.blogspot.it/

Contact: Dr Pieter Schreuder << editorlml@gmail.com

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Tuesday, September 1, 2020

Fw: Ref.: (LML) New publications on leprosy. September, 2020


 

Leprosy Mailing List – September 1,  2020

 

Ref.:  (LML) New publications on leprosy. September, 2020

 

From:  Annemiek Akerboom, Amsterdam, the Netherlands

 


 


Dear colleagues,

The UN Human Rights Council has renewed Alice Cruz's mandate as UN Special Rapporteur on the elimination of discrimination against persons affected by leprosy and their family members for a further three years. We are glad that Alice will remain Special Rapporteur and will thus continue to offer a valuable contribution to eliminating discrimination against persons affected by leprosy. Click here to learn more.

The Federal University of Espírito Santo in Brazil launched the new platform info Hansen to produce and disseminate information on leprosy. The project is initiated by prof. Patricia Deps and run by her students and volunteers, who will share interesting blogs, interviews and events on specific themes. Please visit infohansen.org and select your preferred language.

This month the Neglected Tropical Disease NGO Network (NNN) hosts the 11th Annual Conference. We wish all attendees an educational and inspirational conference.

Infolep constantly aims to increase its accessibility by sharing publications in multiple languages. However, if you come across key publications, which are not available in other languages than English, kindly inform us and we will try to acquire a translated version through our partners.

Like every month we send you an overview of publications on leprosy recently added to the Infolep website. Please feel free to contact me to receive full-text versions if these cannot be found through the Infolep portal. Also, I would be happy to assist you with literature searches.

Warm regards,

Anniek Akerboom

Infolep Coordinator
www.leprosy-information.org
a.akerboom@infolep.org




 

 



 



Notification

 



 



The journal Leprosy Review has a renewed website www.leprosyreview.org. Unfortunately, temporary technical issues have led to several volumes of Leprosy Review not being available on the new website and therefore not accessible through the Infolep portal. We are collaborating with Leprosy Review to ensure that the links will work properly again as soon as possible. Please contact info@infolep.org to receive the Leprosy Review publication you are looking for or visit the Leprosy Review web archive.

 



 



Highlighted publications

 



 



The impact of leprosy on the mental wellbeing of leprosy-affected persons and their family members - a systematic review.
Somar P, Waltz M, van Brakel W. Global mental health (Cambridge, England). 2020; 
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Leprosy post-exposure prophylaxis in the Indian health system: A cost-effectiveness analysis.
Tiwari A, Blok D, Arif M, et al. PLoS neglected tropical diseases. 2020; 14 (8) : e0008521. 
Download PDF

COVID-19 and leprosy-hurdles and possible solutions
Thangaraju P, Arulmani M, Venkatesan S, et al. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine. 2020; 13 (10) : 472-473. 
Download PDF

 



 



New publications

 



 



Leprosy Post-Exposure Prophylaxis with Single-dose Rifampicin. Health economic aspects in India
Tiwari A. Department of Public Health. Erasmus University. 2020; 
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The complex pattern of genetic associations of leprosy with HLA class I and class II alleles can be reduced to four amino acid positions.
Dallmann-Sauer M, Fava V, Gzara C, et al. PLoS pathogens. 2020; 16 (8) : e1008818. 
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Trends and forecasts of leprosy for a hyperendemic city from Brazil's northeast: Evidence from an eleven-year time-series analysis.
Ramos A, Gomes D, Neto M, et al. PloS one. 2020; 15 (8) : e0237165. 
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Trends of the leprosy control indicators in Benin from 2006 to 2018.
Gnimavo R, Djossou P, Sopoh G, et al. BMC public health. 2020; 20 (1) : 1254. 
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On the modelling of leprosy prevalence in South Sulawesi using spatial autoregressive model
Sabil RM, Sastri R. Indonesian Journal of Statistics and Its Applications. 2020; 4 (2) : 245 - 253. 
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What is New in the Pathogenesis and Management of Erythema Nodosum Leprosum.
Bhat R, Vaidya T. Indian dermatology online journal. 2020; 11 (4) : 482-492. 
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Opinion: 5 ways to meet the needs of people with disabilities during pandemics
Nsofor I, Nagesh S. DEVEX. 2020;
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Common mental disorders and associated factors among people with leprosy: cross-sectional analysis in Cuiabá, Brazil, 2018.
Finotti R, Andrade A, de Souza D. Epidemiologia e servicos de saude : revista do Sistema Unico de Saude do Brasil. 2020; 29 (4) : e2019279. 
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Knowledge of and Attitude Toward Leprosy in a Leprosy Endemic District, Eastern Ethiopia: A Community-Based Study
Urgesa K, Bobosha K, Seyoum B, et al. Risk Management and Healthcare Policy. Informa UK Limited. 2020; 
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The role of an active surveillance strategy of targeting household and neighborhood  contacts related to leprosy cases released from treatment in a low-endemic area of China.
Wang N, Chu T, Li F, et al. PLoS neglected tropical diseases. 2020; 14 (8) : e0008563. 
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Operational failures of leprosy control in household social networks with overlapping cases in endemic areas in Brazil.
Boigny R, de Souza E, Ferreira A, et al. Epidemiologia e servicos de saude : revista do Sistema Unico de Saude do Brasil. 2020; 29 (4) : e2019465. 
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Social representations of a former Colony Hospital: A study of its residents
Passos ÁLV, Araújo LFD. Psicologia - Teoria e Prática. GN1 Genesis Network. 2020; 
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BCG vaccination: Effects on the patterns of pediatric leprosy
Sarkar S, Sarkar T, Patra A, et al. Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care. Medknow. 2020; 9 (7) : 3673. 
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Age, gender and BCG vaccination status as risk factors for Leprosy in endemic areas of northern Brazil.
Lima LNGC, Paz JLP, Silvestre MDPSCA, et al. Research Square. 2020; 
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Poor WASH (Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene) Conditions Are Associated with Leprosy in North Gondar, Ethiopia.
Emerson L, Anantharam P, Yehuala F, et al. International journal of environmental research and public health. 2020; 
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Indian Association of Dermatologists, Venereologists and Leprologists (IADVL) Task Force against Recalcitrant Tinea (ITART) Consensus on the Management of Glabrous Tinea (INTACT).
Rengasamy M, Shenoy M, Dogra S, et al. Indian dermatology online journal. 2020; 11 (4) : 502-519. 
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Use of mobile technology in preventing leprosy impairments.
Paul S, Kumar D. Disability and rehabilitation. Assistive technology. 2020;
Read more

Persistent plaques after release from treatment in slit-skin smear negative leprosy patients: wait and watch or adopt a proactive approach?
Narang T, Bishnoi A, Thakur V, et al. Dermatologic therapy. 2020;
Read more

Chemical Synthesis of the Trisaccharide Epitope of Phenolic Glycolipid-1 Surface Antigen from Mycobacterium leprae.
Luo W, Lu B, Zhou R, et al. The Journal of organic chemistry. 2020; 85 (16) : 10973-10979.
Read more

Household Contacts of Leprosy Patients in Endemic Areas Display a Specific Innate Immunity Profile.
van Hooij A, Tió-Coma M, Verhard E, et al. Frontiers in immunology. 2020; 
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Association of IL-10 Gene Polymorphism With IL-10 Secretion by CD4 and T Regulatory Cells in Human Leprosy.
Tarique M, Naz H, Saini C, et al. Frontiers in immunology. 2020; 
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Polymorphisms of the Toll-Like Receptor-2 Gene in Patients with Leprosy and Their Healthy Contacts
Lima LNGC, Moura LS, Paz JLP, et al. Open Journal of Immunology. Scientific Research Publishing, Inc.. 2020; 10 (03) : 37-46. 
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Portuguese publications:

Qualidade de vida de pacientes pós-alta de hanseníase: revisão de literatura.

Pereira KSS, Santos HLPCD, Macedo MSS, et al. Ações de Saúde e Geração de Conhecimento nas Ciências Médicas 7. Atena Editora. 2020; 
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A hanseníase e o itinerário terapêutico no contexto das ciências sociais
Pires JCS, Tavares CCSL, Assis JMVD, et al. Alicerces e Adversidades das Ciências da Saúde no Brasil 5. Atena Editora. 2019; 
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Representações Sociais do Processo de Diagnóstico e Cura da Hanseníase
Leão e Silva LO, Rodrigues SM, Brandão MBF, et al. Revista Psicologia e Saúde. Universidade Catolica Dom Bosco. 2019; 
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Prática do autocuidado em hanseníase - revisão sistemática 
Bezerra MKHL, Alves TM, Furtado LAF, et al. Brazilian Journal of Development. 2020; 6 (8) : 54187-54205. 
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Disclaimer

 



 



Some articles contain stigmatised wording. Please note that Infolep disapproves any stigmatising language. However, we aim to enable access to all relevant publications and want to emphasize that we are not responsible for the content of these publications. We inform journals when we notice stigmatising language in one of their articles and propose alternative wording.

 



 



 



 



Websites & Services

 



 




LML - Leprosy Mailing List - a free moderated email list that allows all persons interested in this theme to share ideas, information, experiences, and questions.
https://groups.google.com/forum/#!forum/leprosymailinglist

InfoNTD - Information on cross-cutting issues in Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs)
https://www.infontd.org/


 

 



 



Journals & Newsletters

 



 



Hansenologia Internationalis: http://www.ilsl.br/revista/atual.php

Indian Journal of Leprosy: http://www.ijl.org.in/index.html

Leprosy Review: https://leprosyreview.org/
Leprosy Review Repository (1928-2001): http://leprev.ilsl.br/arquivo.php

Revista de Leprología:
http://www.leprosy-information.org/resource/revista-de-leprologia

WHO Goodwill Ambassador's Newsletter for the elimination of leprosy:
https://www.shf.or.jp/information/g/ambassador?lang=en

 



 



GDPR & the Infolep newsletter

 



 




New EU data protection regulations came into force on 25 May 2018. We have been reviewing our practices with regard to the GDPR, including our privacy statement and mailing list. Infolep sends out monthly e-mails to its subscribers with an overview of recent publications on leprosy. The purpose of this activity is to keep subscribers up to date. Infolep will only process the data we have (names, email addresses) for the purpose of sending you the newsletter. We take your security seriously and will never share your contact details with anyone else. We hope the content from the Infolep newsletter is useful to you, but you can update your preferences or unsubscribe from this list at any time.

 



 


 



 

LML - S Deepak, B Naafs, S Noto and P Schreuder

LML blog link: http://leprosymailinglist.blogspot.it/

Contact: Dr Pieter Schreuder << editorlml@gmail.com

 

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To unsubscribe from this group and stop receiving emails from it, send an email to leprosymailinglist+unsubscribe@googlegroups.com.
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Monday, August 31, 2020

Fw: (LML) Transmission of HD (leprosy) is maintained by covert recurrence

 

 


Leprosy Mailing List – August 31,  2020

 

Ref.: (LML) Transmission of HD (leprosy) is maintained by covert recurrence

 

From:  Pieter Schreuder, Maastricht, the Netherlands

 

Dear colleagues,

 

Something went wrong with the mail of last Fryday, August 28, "Transmission of HD (leprosy) is maintained by covert recurrence" by Joel Almeida.

 

Figure 2. "Newly reported MB patients by year, Shandong (China).  Rapid decline at a time of low income. Decline sustained until eventual near-zero transmission."did not show in the attached file.

 

By this letter the missing file.

 

Best regards,

 

Pieter AM Schreuder

Editor LML


LML - S Deepak, B Naafs, S Noto and P Schreuder

LML blog link: http://leprosymailinglist.blogspot.it/

Contact: Dr Pieter Schreuder << editorlml@gmail.com

--
You received this message because you are subscribed to the Google Groups "Leprosy Mailing List" group.
To unsubscribe from this group and stop receiving emails from it, send an email to leprosymailinglist+unsubscribe@googlegroups.com.
To view this discussion on the web, visit https://groups.google.com/d/msgid/leprosymailinglist/517b6c19-fe64-47e8-966f-5f94a4a5d79an%40googlegroups.com.