Saturday, January 26, 2019

(LML) Leprosy Pictures to exhibit - Madurai Health Leprosy

Leprosy Mailing List – January 26,  2019
Ref.:   (LML) Leprosy Pictures to exhibit - Madurai Health Leprosy
From:  Ruth Peters, Amsterdam, the Netherlands

Dear Pieter,
Dr. S. Maria Xavier Turtius is asking for support and advice in relation to organizing a photo exhibition.
Some suggestions:
  • Would it be possible to ask people affected by leprosy to make photos about an aspect of their life (e.g., What makes you happy? Where do you find support and care? What are the challenges and barriers that you face?) and display these pictures? There is a qualitative research method called 'Photovoice' which might be of interest to you. Photovoice participants are asked to express their points of view or represent their communities by photographing scenes with a certain question/theme in mind. The process participants go through can be empowering for them and the photos can be used for grassroots social action. 
  • If this is not feasible, could you select pictures for the exhibition together with people affected by leprosy? It would be nice if the exhibition brings across a message that is important to them. Together you can identify pictures that can create or reinforce stigma and exclude these from the exhibition.  
  • Matthew Oldfield is a photographer who made a series of picture of people affected by leprosy in Indonesia.
  • An organization called 'Positive exposure' utilizes the visual arts to present the humanity and dignity of individuals living with genetic, physical, behavioral and intellectual differences.
Kind regards,
Ruth Peters
Visiting research fellow, Department Global Health & Social Medicine, Harvard Medical School
Post-doctoral researcher and lecturer, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam

LML - S Deepak, B Naafs, S Noto and P Schreuder
Contact: Dr Pieter Schreuder <<

(LML) World Leprosy Day: We are failing our children/Día Mundial de la Lepra: estamos fallando a nuestros niños y niñas/Journée mondiale de la lèpre: nous manquons à nos obligations envers nos enfants

Leprosy Mailing List – January 25,  2019
Ref.:    (LML) World Leprosy Day: We are failing our children/Día Mundial de la Lepra: estamos fallando a nuestros niños y niñas/Journée mondiale de la lèpre: nous manquons à nos obligations envers nos enfants
From: Alice Cruz, Quito, Equator

Dear Pieter,

Could you please publish this media statement regarding World Leprosy Day ?

Best wishes,


World Leprosy Day
27 January 2019

Leprosy: We are failing our children

GENEVA (24 January 2019) – Children are among the most vulnerable to leprosy and face life-altering challenges because of physical impairments and stigmatization associated with this neglected disease, a UN human rights expert says.

Leprosy can be easily cured if detected and treated early. Otherwise, it can lead to irreversible damage on the nerves, limbs and eyes.

There were 210,671 new cases of leprosy reported to the World Health Organization in 2017, mainly from India, Brazil, Indonesia, Bangladesh, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ethiopia, Madagascar, Mozambique, Myanmar, Nepal, Nigeria and the Philippines.

"Children affected by leprosy remain invisible and many cases go undetected. The available data on leprosy-related impairments for children is shamefully high, indicating a failure of the health systems to control leprosy and to protect children  from the disease," Alice Cruz, a UN human rights expert specialising in the disease, said in a statement to mark World Leprosy Day on 27 January.

Cruz said archaic laws in many countries discriminate against those affected, treating them as social outcasts. The Special Rapporteur welcomed the recent decision by the Supreme Court of India to promote the social inclusion of persons affected by leprosy. She urged further legal revisions to end discrimination, and reiterated her willingness to visit and provide assistance to States.      

"There are more than 50 countries in the world that keep discriminatory laws against persons affected by leprosy in force," she said. "There are also reports of institutionalized discrimination against children affected by leprosy at the administration of the State, especially in education services. Many children are forced to drop out of schooling and face rejection from their peers and communities."
"It is shameful and unacceptable that we are failing our children. States have a duty to protect children from leprosy and from the structural violence that negatively impacts on their overall life course."


Ms Alice Cruz, the UN Special Rapporteur on the elimination of discrimination against persons affected by leprosy and their family members, is external Professor at the Law School of University Andina Simón Bolívar – Ecuador. Her doctoral work in sociology focuses on the biosocial dimensions of leprosy and identifies, in countries where leprosy is an endemic neglected disease and in countries where it is an imported and rare disease, the different barriers to access to early diagnosis and to high quality care by persons affected by leprosy, as well as their social, economic, familiar and personal life conditions.

The Special Rapporteurs are part of what is known as the Special Procedures of the Human Rights Council. Special Procedures, the largest body of independent experts in the UN Human Rights system, is the general name of the Council's independent fact-finding and monitoring mechanisms that address either specific country situations or thematic issues in all parts of the world. Special Procedures experts work on a voluntary basis; they are not UN staff and do not receive a salary for their work. They are independent from any government or organization and serve in their individual capacity.

For more information and media requests, please contact: Ms. Younkyo Ahn (+41 22  917 9537 / )

For media inquiries related to other UN independent experts please contact: Mr. Jeremy Laurence, UN Human Rights – Media Unit (+41 22 917 9383 /

Follow the UN's independent human rights experts on Twitter @UN_SPExperts

To subscribe/unsubscribe to these emails, please contact

Día Mundial de la Lepra
27 enero 2019

La Lepra: estamos fallando a nuestros niños y niñas

GINEBRA (24 enero 2019) – Los niños y niñas están entre los más vulnerables a la lepra y enfrentan alteraciones profundas en sus vidas debido a las discapacidades físicas y al estigma asociados con esta enfermedad, afirma una perita de la ONU.

La lepra puede ser fácilmente curada si se detecta y trata precozmente. De otro modo, puede causar daños irreversibles en los nervios, extremidades y ojos.

Fueron reportados 210,671 nuevos casos de lepra a la Organización Mundial de la Salud en 2017, mayoritariamente de la India, Brasil, Indonesia, Bangladesh, República Democrática de Congo, Etiopía, Madagascar, Mozambique, Myanmar, Nepal, Nigeria y Filipinas.

"Los niños y niñas afectados por la lepra permanecen invisibles y muchos casos avanzan sin ser detectados. Los datos disponibles sobre las discapacidades causadas por la lepra en niños y niñas son vergonzosamente elevados e indican un fracaso de los sistemas de salud en controlar la lepra y protegerlos de esta enfermedad", afirmó Alice Cruz, una perita de derechos humanos de la ONU especializada en la enfermedad, en una declaración a propósito del Día Mundial de la Lepra que se celebra el 27 de enero.

Alice Cruz declaró que aún subsisten leyes arcaicas que discriminan a las personas afectadas por la lepra en muchos países, tratándolos como parias. La Relatora Especial recibió con agrado la reciente decisión del Supremo Tribunal de la India para la promoción e inclusión social de las personas afectadas por la lepra, recomendando a que se den más revisiones legales para eliminar la discriminación y reiterando su disposición para visitarlos, y dar asistencia a los Estados.

"Existen más de 50 países en el mundo que mantienen en vigencia leyes discriminatorias en contra de las personas afectadas", dice, "También existen varios relatos de discriminación institucionalizada contra los niños y niñas afectados por la lepra en la administración del Estado, especialmente en servicios de educación. Muchos niños y niñas son forzados a dejar la escuela y enfrentan rechazos de sus pares y de sus comunidades." 

Es vergonzoso e inaceptable que estemos fallando a nuestros niños y niñas. Los Estados tienen la obligación de protegerlos de la lepra y de la violencia estructural que provoca impactos negativos en todo el transcurso de sus vidas."


Journée mondiale de la lèpre
27 janvier 2019

Lèpre: nous manquons à nos obligations envers nos enfants

GENÈVE (24 janvier 2019) - Les enfants sont parmi les plus vulnérables face à la lèpre et sont confrontés à des défis qui bouleversent leur vie en raison des handicaps physiques et de la stigmatisation associés à cette maladie négligée, affirme une experte des droits de l'homme des Nations Unies.

Bien qu'elle soit curable, la lèpre peut, lorsqu'elle n'est pas détectée et traitée à un stade précoce, causer des lésions irréversibles de la peau, des nerfs, des membres et des yeux.

En 2017, 210 671 nouveaux cas de lèpre ont été signalés à l'Organisation mondiale de la Santé, principalement en Inde, au Brésil, en Indonésie, au Bangladesh, en République démocratique du Congo, en Éthiopie, à Madagascar, au Mozambique, au Myanmar, au Népal, au Nigeria et aux Philippines.

« Les enfants touchés par la lèpre restent invisibles et de nombreux cas ne sont pas détectés. Les données disponibles sur les déficiences associées à la lèpre chez les enfants sont honteusement élevées, ce qui indique que les systèmes de santé ne parviennent pas à endiguer la lèpre et à protéger les enfants de la maladie », a déclaré dans un communiqué Alice Cruz, experte des droits de l'homme des Nations Unies spécialisée dans la maladie, à l'occasion de la Journée mondiale de la lèpre le 27 janvier.

Mme Cruz a déclaré que dans de nombreux pays, les lois archaïques sont discriminatoires à l'égard des personnes touchées par cette maladie, les considérant comme des parias. La Rapporteuse spéciale s'est félicitée de la récente décision de la Cour suprême de l'Inde de promouvoir l'inclusion sociale des personnes touchées par la lèpre. Elle exhorte les Etats à effectuer de nouvelles révisions juridiques pour mettre fin à la discrimination et réitère sa volonté de se rendre dans les pays et de leur fournir une assistance.      

« Il y a plus de 50 pays dans le monde où subsistent des lois discriminatoires à l'encontre des personnes touchées par la lèpre », a-t-elle dit. « On signale également des cas de discrimination institutionnalisée à l'encontre des enfants touchés par la lèpre au niveau de l'administration étatique, en particulier dans les services éducatifs. Beaucoup d'enfants sont forcés d'abandonner l'école et sont rejetés par leurs pairs et leurs communautés ».

« C'est honteux et inacceptable que nous manquions à nos obligations envers nos enfants. Les Etats ont le devoir de protéger les enfants contre la lèpre et contre la violence structurelle qui a un impact négatif sur leur parcours de vie."


Dia Mundial da Hanseníase
27 Janeiro 2019

Hanseníase: estamos a falhar às nossas crianças

GENEBRA (24 Janeiro 2019) – As crianças estão entre os mais vulneráveis à hanseníase e enfrentam alterações profundas nas suas vidas devido às incapacidades físicas e ao estigma associados com esta doença negligenciada, afirma uma perita da ONU.

A hanseníase pode ser facilmente curada se detectada e tratada precocemente. De outro modo, pode causar danos irreversíveis nos nervos, membros e olhos.

Foram reportados 210,671 novos casos de hanseníase à Organização Mundial de Saúde em 2017, maioritariamente da Índia, Brasil, Indonésia, Bangladesh, República Democrática do Congo, Etiópia, Madagascar, Moçambique, Myanmar, Nepal, Nigéria e Filipinas.

"As crianças afectadas pela hanseníase permanecem invisíveis e muitos casos avançam sem serem detectados. Os dados disponíveis sobre as incapcidades causadas pela hanseníase em crianças são vergonhosamente elevados e indicam um falhanço dos sistemas de saúde em controlar a hanseníase e proteger as crianças desta doença",  afirmou Alice Cruz, uma perita de direitos humanos da ONU especializada na doença numa declaração para assinalar o Dia Mundial da Hanseníase a 27 de Janeiro.

Alice Cruz declarou que leis arcaicas discriminam as pessoas afectadas pela hanseníase em muitos países, tratando-as como párias. A Relatora Especial recebeu com agrado a recente decisão do Supremo Tribunal da Índia para a promoção da inclusão social das pessoas afectadas pela hanseníase, encorajando mais revisões legais para eliminar a discriminação e reiterando a sua disposição para visitar os, e dar assistência aos, Estados.  

"Existem mais de 50 países no mundo que mantêm em vigor leis discriminatórias contra as pessoas afectadas", disse. "Também existem vários relatos de discriminação institucionalizada contra crianças afectadas pela hanseníase na administração do Estado, especialmente em serviços de educação. Muitas crianças são forçadas a deixar a escola e enfrentam a rejeição dos seus pares e das suas comunidades."
"É vergonhoso e inaceitável que estejamos a falhar às nossas crianças. Os Estados têm a obrigação de proteger as crianças da hanseníase e da violência estrutural e concomitante impacto negativo da mesma em todo o curso das suas vidas."


LML - S Deepak, B Naafs, S Noto and P Schreuder
Contact: Dr Pieter Schreuder <<

(LML) Leprosy Pictures to exhibit - Madurai Health Leprosy

Leprosy Mailing List – January 25,  2019
Ref.:   (LML) Leprosy Pictures to exhibit - Madurai Health Leprosy
From:  S. Maria Xavier Turtius, Madurai, India

Dear Pieter,

Kindly share the following in LML and get support asap.

Greetings from *Madurai Health and Leprosy Relief Centre*(MAHELERECEN), non
profit from Madurai, India.
We are doing past 28 years leprosy medical care
and rehabilitation activities.

In this year 2019, we plan to do *leprosy photo exhibition* end of January
30 and 31, World Leprosy Day/ Anti Leprosy Day at our *Madurai city, Tamil
Nadu, India*.

We have not experience in leprosy photo exhibition. So, in this regards we required some photos,  documents to exhibit.  And suggestions. Kindly help us in this regard.

If you courier the Photos and documents means it will be very helpful for

Thanking you,

Dr.S. Maria Xavier Turtius,
Executive Secretary

Madurai Health And Leprosy Relief Centre (MAHELERECEN).
12/10 Sister Rose Second Street,
Tamil Nadu,
Phone 91-452-2360159, Mobile :+91-9042484814
E mail :
email :              

LML - S Deepak, B Naafs, S Noto and P Schreuder
Contact: Dr Pieter Schreuder <<

(LML) Unblocking the flow of funds for leprosy work

Leprosy Mailing List – January 25,  2019
Ref.: (LML) Unblocking the flow of funds for leprosy work  
From:  Francesca Gajete, Manila, the Philippines

Dear Dr. Pieter,

Greetings from the Philippines!

My response to Joel Almeida for your editing (LML, January 20, 2019). I might be coming out too strong for our readers and our leaders in leprosy work. 

I understand and commiserate with the concern of Dr Joel Almeida as to the dwindling funds if not nil for leprosy work. This is not limited to few countries but I believe, globally.  In my 43 years as leprosy worker,10 years as National Leprosy Control Program Manager I would like to share some insights, experiences and observations:

1.  Funds for leprosy work is NOT EQUITABLY utilized.  It is dependent upon the Medical Officer assigned for STBL/HIV. Mostly are epidemiologist for TB and HiV claiming they have no knowledge of leprosy. So, the Program Manager just wait on the side for whatever is allocated, sometimes you just have to push for inclusion in research and epidemiological studies among others. There was only one who requested to have a one on one training on the basics of leprosy and gave equitable allocation of funds and time for leprosy leaving an enormous legacy funded by his own government;

Lessons learned: as Program Manager workout your Operational and Financial Plan and get your support from your own government thru your Ministry of Health and legislators.

What happened to the Bangkok Declaration? We need an update from the GLP Managers on this.

2.   Inclusion of Leprosy with NTD has negative effect. Why so? If the health official you are working with is the NTD point person and has a priority program either leprosy is left behind or your fund is siphoned.

Lessons learned: Program Operational Plans must jive with that of the whole region in the country. We have 16 Regions and the Autonomous Region of Muslim Mindanao. We concentrate in areas declared as still endemic while ascertaining that case finding together with contact surveys (RFT for the past  10 yrs) and still continuing MLEC ( Modified Leprosy Elimination Campaigns) nationwide;

Exclude Leprosy from NTD, since it is no longer a neglected disease it's just not a priority but has funds for operations and leprosy work.

3.    Reversed playing field with major partners in leprosy work. It is now the National Leprosy Control Program which provides funds to Major Partners.

Lessons learned:   Not all Partners provided with funds have the best intentions as that of the NLCP:  Divine guidance and trust is very much needed if you want to succeed, but until when?

NLCP Managers must be keen enough to choose partners who deliver accordingly.

4.    In June 2010, the Operational Guidelines for the Active Participation of Persons Affected by Leprosy was drafted in Manila. It has been more than 8 years, some of the participants have already passed away though majority are still waiting for updates on how they can actively participate.

Lessons learned: NLCP must allocate bigger budget for Community Organizing & Training; established Community Based Rehabilitation; choose effective partners to facilitate.

Lastly, reiterating the formulation of GLP Modules for the Academe for Physicians, Nurses , Medical Technologists, Midwives, Health Educators and Nursing Attendants by our leprosy experts like the ones crafted by Dr Luc Van Parijs and Ms June Nash in Madras and Nepal together with selected program managers and leprosy partners.

I also hope these concerns will be tackled during the 20th International Leprosy Conference in Manila, September 10-13,2019. See you all soon!

Yours in Leprosy Service,

Dr Francesca C Gajete

LML - S Deepak, B Naafs, S Noto and P Schreuder
Contact: Dr Pieter Schreuder <<

(LML) Unblocking the flow of funds for leprosy work

Leprosy Mailing List – January 20,  2019
Ref.:    (LML) Unblocking the flow of funds for leprosy work
From:  Joel Almeida, London and Mumbai

Dear Pieter,

One of the great and the good in the leprosy world recently reached out to me, expressing interest in the need for a more reliable description of the true magnitude of leprosy.

I am sharing my response below:

"Getting this right will open the blockages in funding that have hampered leprosy work since the year 2000. Once funding becomes aligned with the true size of the burden of leprosy, the situation will be transformed. Getting this right is the first step, like opening the tap on a fire hydrant when needing to fight a fire.

The first part of this first step is finding seed funding to enable sample surveys in leprosy-endemic countries. Certainly, India and Brazil. These surveys will establish both the prevalence of disability and the weight of disability attributable to leprosy.

Once that is done, everything else will follow more easily. That's because the IHME (Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation) will start describing the GBD (global burden of disease) for leprosy in an informed and reliable way. The decline in funding will be reversed. This is what happened with TB (tuberculosis) in the 1990s. Christopher Murray, now head of the IHME, wrote about TB for the World Bank. I have previously worked with Chris on TB and leprosy calculations. IHME is being fed ignorance about leprosy instead of reliable information.

At the moment people are trying to fight the fire of this infectious disease with thimbles instead of a fire hydrant. Worse, we are claiming partial victory on the basis of reducing the number of thimbles in use (how many people are currently receiving MDT). It is a recipe for continuing decline in funding, which invites a resurgence of leprosy. Such resurgence is reliably being reported from specific hot spots in India, already.

If you can find some funding for these sample surveys, it will be seed funding that can unleash an avalanche of further funding from a wide variety of sources. At the moment the entire national leprosy programme of India is running on about USD 6.6 million per year, according to public statements. That is smaller than the annual budget of many small non-governmental organisations. 

A relatively small amount of seed funding is required for this work. From this seed will the tree of funding grow, yielding not merely funds but also a measurable impact on the incidence rate of new infection and new disability in leprosy.

Then actions and results will start to match intentions and promises."


Joel Almeida

LML - S Deepak, B Naafs, S Noto and P Schreuder
Contact: Dr Pieter Schreuder <<

Friday, January 18, 2019

(LML) Early detection is the critical part

Leprosy Mailing List – January 18,  2019
Ref.:  (LML) Early detection is the critical part
From:  Umerov Zhaudat, Moscow, Russia

Dear Pieter,

I would like to react to the LML message of Geeske Zijp. When there are funds, employees, but there is no motivation to support the most vulnerable the result is unfortunate. Motivation is most likely a consequence, not a cause. The reasons can be many.

The most important reason, in my opinion, is the safety of life in the regions where our patients live. According to reports, team members on the survey and provision of medical care might be the target of armed groups not subordinates to the government. This reason can be solved only together with the security service of the government.

The next important step is to appoint a team leader. A "weak" leader (without motivation) will not have motivated employees. You can invite "strong" leaders from other team for a short time in the "weak" team.

The next reason is the lack of attention to these employees. Probably, rewarding with diplomas, participation in television programs etc. of popular medical workers will help to awaken motivation of other workers.

There are many different ways to improve the organization of service in addition to the above. Use the experience of the staff of the Regional  WHO office for the fight against leprosy. Good luck. Remember-there are no unresolvable problems.

Kind regards,


LML - S Deepak, B Naafs, S Noto and P Schreuder
Contact: Dr Pieter Schreuder <<

(LML) Early detection is the critical part

Leprosy Mailing List – January 18,  2019
Ref.:   (LML) Early detection is the critical part
From:  Arry Pongtiku, Papua, Indonesia

Dear Pieter,

Thank you so much facilitating this discussion. I would like to comment LML January 10,2019, Geeske Zijp has a question how can we motivate the appropriate staff to get or to stay interested and to take on their responsibility to search case detection, treat and follow up patients without extra external stimulation/financial incentives?. I would like to share as follows:
1. My experience learned leprosy, I got a confidence after receiving a training and   handled about 20 cases in the beginning of my career in Central Sulawesi as well as actively supported/mentored by old/senior supervisor (nurse). I could diagnose leprosy, giving classification for MB / PB cases, and treatment. When we work more in the field more skilful and motivated/inspired we are.

2. Nurses/ leprosy field workers would be more motivated when he/she has more knowledge and experience to handle the cases. With role leadership by supervisor/advisor/consultant, we will grow self confidence of leprosy field workers. When he/she was able or succeed to treat the case, she/he wished to handle more. Leprosy is a treatable and curable disease. Leprosy staff will be curious when they know the process of disease transmission is. They will do contact tracing for those the index cases/family/close friends, they may get new /more cases. They will understand something beyond such as stigma of patients, ether the patient is accepted or not accepted by his/her family. If leprosy field worker can help reaction cases that supported by supervisor or able to handle disability and wound cases would be great motivation. Difficult cases such as reaction and DDS allergy may be demotivating if failed to treat therefore better communication and easy access to supervisor/consultant /experienced doctor/dermatologist are important. An illustrative book of leprosy (atlas) may be also as a friend for them in the field.

3. Meeting of leprosy field workers did not only share new information, knowledge and experience but also place to keep competitive feeling among them. " I can do this, what are you doing friends? it is the way."

4. Sharing knowledge and experience among peer of leprosy field workers will grow self motivation. In Jayapura and Biak in Papua, all leprosy field workers arranged certain time and go together to villages voluntary in examining community and giving health education including door to door/ from house to house approach. This innovation recently got an appreciation from government.

5. Routinely supervised by district supervisors and ensure availability of MDT keep the leprosy field workers motivated particularly during active case findings.

6. A leprosy field worker from one health center supported in active case findings (Rapid Village survey) at other health center areas, they will feel more appreciated. Exchange and send them in a special training would be good.

6. Beyond practice, our values can make a change and motivate to do efforts for elimination of leprosy. God will count leprosy workers efforts. In many cases, leprosy field workers' family /children are blessed. It is motivating them.

7. Financial incentive is important to keep their motivation and help for their own family. The incentive is not too high but enough for sustainability of the program. Some times they can use their incentive for transportation and share food for leprosy patients. They are not only talk but they want to give more.

Geeske, despite many struggling in leprosy program, I believe many leprosy workers are very dedicated. In few cases, I am also wondering why do those people keep working for long, until their retirement or after retirement.

Thank you so much,

Arry Pongtiku from Papua,Indonesia

LML - S Deepak, B Naafs, S Noto and P Schreuder
Contact: Dr Pieter Schreuder <<

(LML) InfoNTD monthly e-newsletter on NTDs and cross-cutting issues - January 2019

Leprosy Mailing List – January 18,  2019
Ref.:  (LML)   InfoNTD monthly e-newsletter on NTDs and cross-cutting issues - January 2019
From:  Ilse Egers, Amsterdam, the Netherlands

Dear colleagues,
This newsletter provides you with a selection of news items and recent publications on cross-cutting issues in NTDs. Our starting point is to add articles covering a wide variety of issues. Unfortunately, this is not always possible due to a limited diversity in and shortage of articles on cross-cutting issues and NTDs.

Feel free to contact us with any questions or to receive the PDF if a link to the full text is not included.
Our document delivery service is free!

Ilse Egers,
InfoNTD Coordinator
New publications
PP116 Health utilities and neglected conditions: A Chagas disease study.
Miguel S, Bagattini Â, Cruz L, et al. Int J Technol Assess Health Care. 2019:110-111.
Abstract Chagas disease (ChD), also known as American trypanosomiasis, is a neglected tropical disease caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. About 6 to 7 million people worldwide are estimated to be infected, most in Latin America. Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and utility measures are still poorly employed for assessment of ChD lifetime impairments. The present study aims to assess quality of life (QoL), as utility scores, of patients with chronic Chagas Disease.
Read more

Revisiting area risk classification of visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil.
Machado G, Alvarez J, Bakka HC, et al. BMC Infect. Dis. 2019; 19(1):2.
Abstract Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a neglected tropical disease of public health relevance in Brazil. To prioritize disease control measures, the Secretaria de Vigilância em Saúde of Brazil's Ministry of Health (SVS/MH) uses retrospective human case counts from VL surveillance data to inform a municipality-based risk classification. In this study, we compared the underlying VL risk, using a spatiotemporal explicit Bayesian hierarchical model (BHM), with the risk classification currently in use by the Brazil's Ministry of Health.
Download PDF

Elimination within reach: A cross-sectional study highlighting the factors that contribute to persistent lymphatic filariasis in eight communities in rural Ghana.
Minetti C, Tettevi EJ, Mechan F, et al. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2019; 13(1):e0006994.
Abstract Despite the progress achieved in scaling-up mass drug administration (MDA) for lymphatic filariasis (LF) in Ghana, communities with persistent LF still exist even after 10 years of community treatment. To understand the reasons for persistence, we conducted a study to assess the status of disease elimination and understand the adherence to interventions including MDA and insecticide treated nets.
Download PDF

GEOFIL: A spatially-explicit agent-based modelling framework for predicting the long-term transmission dynamics of lymphatic filariasis in American Samoa.
Xu Z, Graves PM, Lau CL, et al. Epidemics. 2018.
Abstract In this study, a spatially-explicit agent-based modelling framework GEOFIL was developed to predict lymphatic filariasis (LF) transmission dynamics in American Samoa. GEOFIL included individual-level information on age, gender, disease status, household location, household members, workplace/school location and colleagues/schoolmates at each time step during the simulation.
Download PDF

A longitudinal systems immunologic investigation of acute Zika virus infection in an individual infected while traveling to Caracas, Venezuela.
Carlin AF, Wen J, Vizcarra EA, et al. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2018; 12(12):e0007053.
Abstract Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging mosquito-borne flavivirus linked to devastating neurologic diseases. Immune responses to flaviviruses may be pathogenic or protective. Our understanding of human immune responses to ZIKV in vivo remains limited. Therefore, we performed a longitudinal molecular and phenotypic characterization of innate and adaptive immune responses during an acute ZIKV infection.
Download PDF

Economic impact of dengue in Mexico considering reported cases for 2012 to 2016.
Zubieta-Zavala A, López-Cervantes M, Salinas-Escudero G, et al. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2018; 12(12):e0006938.
Abstract Given that dengue disease is growing and may progress to dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF), data on economic cost and disease burden are important. However, data for Mexico are limited.
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Neglected tropical diseases and mental health: Progress, partnerships, and integration.
Bailey F, Eaton J, Jidda M, et al. Trends Parasitol. 2018; 35(1):23-31.
Abstract Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) are increasingly recognised as major drivers of psychosocial morbidity in affected individuals and their caregivers. In our article, we highlight the progress in understanding the scope of the mental health impact of NTDs and the innovative practice emerging in this area. Finally, we examine opportunities for integration of mental and physical health for individuals with NTDs.
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Spatial analysis of dengue, cysticercosis and Chagas disease mortality in Ecuador, 2011-2016.
Núñez-González S, Gault C, Simancas-Racines D. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 2018; 113(1):44-47.
Abstract Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) continue to be an important cause of disability and mortality in the poorest tropical and subtropical areas. This is an ecological study. We included all death certificates with dengue, cysticercosis and Chagas disease in Ecuador from 2011 to 2016. The spatial autocorrelation was evaluated by GeoDa software through the Global Moran's I index and the formation of clusters by the local index of spatial association.
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Snakebite burden in Sub-Saharan Africa.
Halilu S, Iliyasu G, Hamza M, et al. Toxicon. 2018; 159:1-4.
Abstract There is no reliable estimate of burden of snakebite-envenoming (SBE) in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). We derived from a meta-analysis the burden of SBE related deaths, amputations and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) in 41 countries in SSA. The annual burden was estimated at 1.03 million DALYs (95% Confidence Interval: 0.80-1.28 million DALYs). This is similar to or higher than the burden of many Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) and the finding advocates for a commensurate resources allocation towards control of SBE.
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In silico repositioning of approved drugs against Schistosoma mansoni energy metabolism targets.
Calixto NM, Dos Santos DB, Bezerra JCB, et al. PLoS ONE. 2018; 13(12):e0203340.
Abstract Schistosomiasis is a neglected parasitosis caused by Schistosoma spp. Praziquantel is used for the chemoprophylaxis and treatment of this disease. Although this monotherapy is effective, the risk of resistance and its low efficiency against immature worms compromises its effectiveness. Therefore, it is necessary to develop new schistosomicide drugs. However, the development of new drugs is a long and expensive process.
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Helminth infection in primary school children and characteristics of settlement in the coastal village of Kusan Hilir subdistrict Tanah Bumbu District, South Kalimantan Province, Indonesia.
Hairani B, Hidayat S, Juhairiyah, et al. International journal of engineering technology and sciences. 2018; 5(3):66-72.
Abstract Environmental factors are very influential in the transmission of helminthiasis. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of helminthiasis in primary school-aged children living in villages with coastal ecosystem types in Kusan Hilir Sub-district, Tanah Bumbu District. Furthermore, we ought to identify and compare the characteristics of settlement areas that may increase the risk of transmission.
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Knowledge and practices of health practitioners on treatment of Buruli ulcer in the Mbonge, Ekonko Titi and Muyuka Health Districts, South West Region, Cameroon.
Nsai FS, Cumber SN, Nkfusai NC, et al. Pan Afr Med J. 2018; 31.
Abstract after tuberculosis and leprosy, Buruli ulcer (BU) is the third most common mycobacterial infection. Buruli ulcer begins as a localized skin lesion that progresses to extensive ulceration thus leading to functional disability, loss of economic productivity and social stigma. This study is aimed at assessing the knowledge and practices among health practitioners on the treatment of BU in the Mbonge, Ekondo Titi and Muyuka Health Districts of the South West Region of Cameroon.
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Community-based surveillance and control of chagas disease vectors in remote rural areas of the Argentine Chaco: A five-year follow-up.
Cecere MC, Rodríguez-Planes LI, Vazquez-Prokopec GM, et al. Acta Trop. 2018; 191:108-115.
Abstract Prevention of Chagas disease vector-borne transmission mostly relies on the residual application of pyrethroid insecticide. Persistent or recurrent house infestation after insecticide spraying remains a serious challenge. Here we use generalized estimating equations and multimodel inference to model the fine-scale, time-lagged effects of a community-based vector surveillance-and-response strategy on house infestation and abundance of Triatoma infestans in four rural communities of the Argentine Chaco over a five-year period.
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Risk factors, symptoms and effects of urinary schistosomiasis on anthropometric indices of school children in Zaria, Kaduna state, Nigeria.
Bishop HG, Akoh RI. Open Access J Sci. 2018; 2(1):61-65.
Abstract Nigerian children suffer a great burden of parasitic infections. Urinary schistosomiasis is associated with children's daily indulgence in uncontrolled water activities in unsafe water bodies. The study was aimed at assessing the level of urinary schistosomiasis among school children in Zaria-Nigeria, as well as the risk factors, signs/symptoms and effects associated with it.
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General contextual effects on neglected tropical disease risk in rural Kenya.
de Glanville WA, Thomas LF, Cook EAJ, et al. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2018; 12(12):e0007016.
Abstract The neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) are characterized by their tendency to cluster within groups of people, typically the poorest and most marginalized. Despite this, measures of clustering, such as within-group correlation or between-group heterogeneity, are rarely reported from community-based studies of NTD risk. We describe a general contextual analysis that uses multi-level models to partition and quantify variation in individual NTD risk at multiple grouping levels in rural Kenya.
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Trachoma in 3 Amerindian communities, Venezuelan Amazon, 2018.
Noya-Alarcón O, Bevilacqua M, Rodriguez-Morales AJ. Emerging Infect. Dis. 2019; 25(1):182-183.
Abstract Trachoma is among the most common infectious causes of blindness. During January-May 2018, a total of 4 trachoma cases were diagnosed among Amerindians of the Yanomami ethnic group in 3 communities of southern Venezuela. This country has social and environmental conditions conducive to the endemicity of this neglected tropical disease.
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First report of an autochthonous human visceral leishmaniasis in a child from the South of Minas Gerais State, Brazil.
Narciso TP, Carvalho RC, Campos LC, et al. Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Sao Paulo. 2018; 61:e1.
Abstract American visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a vector-borne disease transmitted by some species of phlebotomine sandflies from the genus Lutzomyia. After the emergence of foci of the disease in urban areas, VL has assumed an important role in public health. Although VL is widely prevalent in several parts of the world, diagnosing the illness is still difficult. We present a case of a 12-year-old girl with a history of recurrent fever, anorexia, cachexia, chronic fatigue, weight loss, left palpebral unilateral edema, persistent cough and pancytopenia.
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Health, financial, and education gains of investing in preventive chemotherapy for schistosomiasis, soil-transmitted helminthiases, and lymphatic filariasis in Madagascar: A modeling study.
De Neve J-W, Andriantavison RL, Croke K, et al. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2018; 12(12):e0007002.
Abstract Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) account for a large disease burden in sub-Saharan Africa. While the general cost-effectiveness of NTD interventions to improve health outcomes has been assessed, few studies have also accounted for the financial and education gains of investing in NTD control.
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Achieving the endgame: Integrated NTD case searches.
Buyon L, Slaven R, Emerson PM, et al. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2018; 12(12):e0006623.
Abstract Trachoma and Guinea Worm Disease (GWD) are neglected tropical diseases (NTD) slated for elimination as a public health problem and eradication respectively by the World Health Organization. As these programs wind down, uncovering the last cases becomes an urgent priority. In 2010, Ghana Health Services, along with The Carter Center, Sightsavers, and other partners, conducted integrated case searches for both GWD and the last stage of trachoma disease, trachomatous trichiasis (TT), as well as providing surgical treatment for TT to meet elimination.
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Interventions to treat cutaneous leishmaniasis in children: A systematic review.
Uribe-Restrepo A, Cossio A, Desai MM, et al. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2018; 12(12):e0006986.
Abstract Case management in children with cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is mainly based on studies performed in adults. We aimed to determine the efficacy and harms of interventions to treat CL in children.
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A comprehensive approach to managing a neglected, Neglected Tropical Disease; the Myanmar Snakebite Project (MSP).
White J, Mahmood MA, Alfred S, et al. Toxicon: X. 2018.
Abstract Snakebite is predominantly an occupational disease affecting poor rural farmers in tropical regions and was recently added to the World Health Organisation list of Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTD). We document an overview of methodologies developed and deployed in the Myanmar Snakebite Project, a foreign aid project largely funded by the Australian Government, with the core aim to "improve outcomes for snakebite patients".
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Integrating ecological approaches to interrupt schistosomiasis transmission: opportunities and challenges.
Liang S, Abe EM, Zhou X-N. Infect Dis Poverty. 2018; 7(1):124.

Abstract The development of agenda for global schistosomiasis elimination as a public health problem generates enthusiasms among global health communities, motivating great interests in both research and practice. Recent China-Africa schistosomiasis control initiatives, aiming to enhance collaboration on disease control in African countries, reflect in part that momentum. Yet there is a pressing need to know whether the Chinese experiences can be translated and applied in African settings.
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The disabling consequences of Mycetoma.
Abbas M, Scolding PS, Yosif AA, et al. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2018.
Abstract Mycetoma is a neglected tropical disease endemic in tropical and subtropical countries, particularly Sudan. It is a chronic, debilitating disease most commonly affecting the feet or hands and leads to substantial morbidity, loss of function and even amputation. It predominantly affects poor, rural populations and patients typically present late with advanced disease and complications. In this descriptive cross-sectional study, we characterise the disabling consequences of mycetoma.
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Monitoring the elimination of human African trypanosomiasis: Update to 2016.
Franco JR, Cecchi G, Priotto G, et al. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2018; 12(12):e0006890.
Abstract Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) is a neglected tropical disease targeted for elimination 'as a public health problem' by 2020. The indicators to monitor progress towards the target are based on the number of reported cases, the related areas and populations exposed at various levels of risk, and the coverage of surveillance activities. The World Health Organization (WHO) provides here an update to 2016 for these indicators, as well as an analysis of the epidemiological situation.
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The elimination of human African trypanosomiasis is in sight: Report from the third WHO stakeholders meeting on elimination of gambiense human African trypanosomiasis.
Barrett MP. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2018; 12(12):e0006925.
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Prioritizing surveillance activities for certification of yaws eradication based on a review and model of historical case reporting.
Fitzpatrick C, Asiedu K, Solomon AW, et al. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2018; 12(12):e0006953.
Abstract The World Health Organization (WHO) has targeted yaws for global eradication. Eradication requires certification that all countries are yaws-free. We reviewed the literature and developed a model of case reports to identify countries in which passive surveillance is likely to find and report cases if transmission is still occurring, with the goal of reducing the number of countries in which more costly active surveillance will be required.
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Challenges of schistosomiasis control and elimination and the Way Forward in sub-Saharan Africa: Literature review and status.
Assefa A, Berhe N. International invention of scientific journal. 2018; 2(12):375-384.
Abstract There are more than 200 million people infected worldwide and 20 million of these suffer serious health consequences, mostly children and adolescents in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). A literatures review was conducted to look for challenges for control and elimination of schistosomiasis and the ways forward in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA).
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WHO data show unprecedented treatment coverage for bilharzia and intestinal worms
14 December 2018 | Geneva −− The latest data on treatment for schistosomiasis (bilharzia) and soil-transmitted helminthiases (intestinal worms) show encouraging trends towards the goal of attaining a minimum target of treating at least 75% of school-aged children in areas endemic for these parasitic infections, making it technically feasible to achieve the global targets set for 2020.
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